Impact of Steam on Road Transport

The Songs

Most of the songs in this category were printed on broadsides. Most share the view of people employed in the business of horse-drawn transport and naturally consider steam power a bad thing. However a significant minority celebrate the demise of stage coaches. 

Main Themes and Motifs

  • Much faster travel brought by steam power
  • Unemployment and destitution of those employed in horse powered transport
  • Anticipated economic benefits of the railway

Chronology

1820-24
1825-29     267
1830-34     378; 544
1835-39     099*; 141; 199; 416; 626
1840-44     549
1850-54     306
1855-59
1860-64     473
1865-69     545
1870-74

Uncertain   202

* The earliest and latest dates for this item extend across decades. See item more information.

Historical Background

The 1841 census counted 55 thousand people directly employed in driving coaches and wagons; looking after the travellers that rode in them; and caring for the horses that drew them.
To them can be added many of the 47 thousand sellers of food and lodging for whom travellers were important customers.
The first threat to the coach trade came from steam powered carriages which took to the roads in the 1820s. (see bar271 New Steam Carriage Blown Up) Coach roads were maintained by Turnpike Trusts - organisations dominated by men who profited by the coach trade and who used their influence to price steam carriages off the road. But the victory of the coach trade over steam power was short lived.
The success of the Stockton & Darlington Railway inspired the construction of the less celebrated - but more significant - Liverpool and Manchester which opened in 1830. Within three months - half of the 26 stage coaches running between those cities ceased operations

 

od015EndofEra.png
End of the coaching era. (The train in the background looks very like one used on the Manchester and Liverpool)
Science Museum/Science Museum and Society Picture Library

Coaching inns lost trade. The Duke of Wellington said that 'before the steam invention' he had stopped six or eight times a year at The Fountain in Canterbury but since using the railway he never went there. Some inns became ticket offices for the railways. Others fell into decline and - for lack economic incentive to modernise them - survived into the twentieth century to become a treasured architectural feature of cities such as Chester, Devizes, York and St Albans.
But - contrary to expectations - the demand for road transport increased and with it the number of horses - especially in towns where they pulled short-haul vehicles ferrying people and goods to and from the increasing number of railway stations. Many coachmen kept their connection with horses; running stables, letting out horses and carriages or becoming horse dealers

In the countryside the slow stage waggons also disappeared a process well under way during the 1840s when bar549 When This Old Hat Was New was worked up from an older song. Remembering the 1880s, Flora Thompson wrote

"At that time [the main road] was deserted for hours together. Three miles away trains roared over the viaduct, carrying those who would, had they lived a few years before or later, have used the turnpike. People were saying that far too much money was being spent keeping such roads in repair, for their day was over;… Sometimes the children and their mother would meet a tradesman's van….. or the doctor's tall gig, or the smart turn-out of a brewer's traveller; but often they walked their mile along the turnpike without seeing anything on wheels.

 
References and Notes

[i] Drink and the Victorians The Temperance Question in England 1815-1872


[ii]

[iii]

[iv]

 

3 across Articles in this Category: click a link

Bob the Groom

bar036: Dates 1844~1850|

A Groom put out of work by railways tells of the consequent ups and downs of his life.

Pleasures Of Travelling By Steam

bar141b: Dates 1838~1840|

Anticipates the benefits of the railway

Brighton Railway

bar045: Dates 1857~1861|

Description of journey from  London to Brighton.

Dirge of the Dragsman

bar626: Dates 1836~----|

A coachman laments that the railways will put him out of work.

George Stephenson

bar535: Dates 1865~1869|

Celebration of George Stephenson, railway engineer.

When This Old Hat Was New

bar549: Dates 1843~----|

Lament for the times including a mention of the impact of steam power. 

Shillibeers Original Omnibus versus the...

bar378: Dates 1834~1834|

Pre-emptive propaganda against the proposed London and Greenwich railway

Stagecoachman's Lament

bar554: Dates 1832~1834|

 A stage coach driver bids farewell to his coach. He refuses the offer of work on the railway.

Steam! Steam!! Steam!!!

bar416: Dates 1834~1835|

Celebrates the coming of steam and predicts fantastical applications of steam power.

When George III Was King

bar545: Dates 1856~----|

Times are altered for the worse. Mentions steam coaches and Stevenson.

Johnny Green's Trip Fro' Owdhum To See...

bar199: Dates 1830~1842|

A weaver describes the railway - notes that it has depressed stage coach trade - but expects new railways to benefit weavers. [199Synopsis] 

Western Railroad

bar473: Dates 1863~1863|

Welcomes the arrival of the railway and the benefits it will bring; and bids good riddance to the stage coaches.

Sonnet on Steam

bar732: Dates ----~1834|

An ostler laments the coming of steam power.

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